1. Lord Mahavira{ last of the 24 Tirthankaras}

2. Originated in ancient India


2. Core beliefs

  1. Non-violence (Ahimsa)
    1. Peaceful resistance to achieve social change.
    2. Jain principles of non-violence and compassion.
    3. Fundamental teachings guiding Jain way of life.
  2. Truthfulness (Satya)
    1. Satya promotes honesty and authenticity in relationships.
    2. Jainism in India emphasizes non-violence and self-discipline.
    3. Core beliefs of Jainism include non-absolutism and non-possessiveness.
  3. Non-stealing (Asteya)
    1. Cultivating honesty and integrity in all actions.
    2. Foundation of Jainism, emphasizing non-stealing.
    3. Principles guiding behavior towards respect and compassion.
  4. Continence (Brahmacharya)
    1. Mastery of self-control in JAINISM: Brahmacharya.
    2. JAINISM's emphasis on continence for spiritual growth.
    3. Core beliefs of JAINISM shape Indian society.
  5. Non-possession (Aparigraha)
    1. Embracing detachment from material possessions for inner peace.
    2. Jainism emphasizes non-attachment as a core spiritual principle.
    3. UPSC candidates explore Jainism's belief in non-possession.
  6. Practices
    1. Meditation
    2. Fasting
    3. Pilgrimages to sacred Jain temples
  7. Relevance to UPSC
    1. Understanding Jainism helps in comprehending Indian history and culture
    2. Useful for aspirants preparing for Indian culture and heritage topics in UPSC exams
  8. Importance
    1. Influence on Indian culture and philosophy
    2. Emphasis on non-violence
    3. Contribution to the concept of karma and rebirth
      1. Exploration of karmic cycles through Jainism teachings.
      2. Significance of Jainism in shaping Indian spiritual beliefs.
    4. Jain temples and monuments are significant landmarks in India
    1. Jains
    2. Found predominantly in India
    3. Small minority in the Hindu-dominated country
    4. Follow strict vegetarianism


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